What is 5G?
5G (fifth generation telecommunications network) is the latest mobile communication standard – explains the digitization department in the “5G Guide“. As added, it allows for much faster data transfer and simultaneous operation of a larger number of devices. It is to enable fifty- or even a hundred-fold increase in transmission speed compared to current 4G networks.
Such technology is intended to accelerate, among others, the development of the internet of things (fridge or washing machine connected to the internet), telemedicine services, autonomous vehicles or smart cities.
When it comes to speed increases, we are talking about data transfer speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second. This will not only allow you to surf faster on the Internet or download files (e.g. movies), but above all it will be used in industry and the economy, for example in the computer games industry, in which Polish entrepreneurs compete with world market leaders.
In the case of 5G networks, delays in data transfer are up to a few milliseconds (thousandths of a second). This is of great importance in such areas as autonomous transport or remote medicine.
Another advantage of the 5G network is the possibility of simultaneous, uninterrupted operation of up to a million devices requiring access to networks located on a square kilometer.
The revolution will not happen overnight, if only because the first devices capable of supporting 5G are appearing on the market.
How will the 5G network work?
On the hardware side, the 5G network will work similarly to today’s 4G networks – assures the Ministry of Digitization in the “Guidebook”. The base will be base stations equipped with modern antennas capable of 5G data transmission.
On the physical side, the radio transmission method is the same as for 4G / LTE. At the same time, it is impossible to talk about 5G networks, not to mention optical fibers.
It must be remembered that every base station in the 5G network will have to be connected to the fiber optic to achieve unprecedented speed in radio communication and bandwidth.
New frequencies and transmitters
The government explains that for the 5G network to work properly, new frequencies need to be allocated. In the context of 5G networks, the 700 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz bands are taken into account, and in the future also 26 GHz.
“These are the frequencies that we are already using in telecommunications, for transmitting television signals or in radio lines” – explains the Ministry of Digitization. He adds that without the availability of new frequencies, there is a risk of a radical drop in internet speed under 4G.
Another issue is the need to build new antennas. Over time, 5G technology will use radio waves, including in the 26 GHz band, which have different applications so far, and at the same time have a “shorter range”.
“In the 5G network, we replace one powerful antenna with a few small transmitters, which will be found, for example, on streetlights or stops. Due to the fact that there will be more of them, they will be able to operate with much less power” – explains MC.
5G network and health
In the context of the 5G network, there are questions about the impact on human health. 5G technology, like previous generations of cellular communication, uses electromagnetic waves. Their impact on people and the environment has been studied and is constantly monitored.
“From the point of view of physics and biology, the impact on humans is no different from the impact of other devices using radio waves. Some of them, such as cell phones, have been with us for over twenty years, others – like the radio – for many generations. Today, no convincing and credible scientific research has shown that they harm us, “assures the Ministry of Digitization.